The report will be delivered in 2-3 business days.

Antidepressants Global Market Report 2021: COVID-19 Implications And Growth To 2030

Starting Price : $5000 | Pages : 150 | Published : March 2021 | SKU CODE : h061 | Format :


The antidepressants market consists of sales of antidepressants and related services that are used in retail pharmacies, hospitals and clinics. Antidepressants are drugs that can help to alleviate depressive symptoms, social anxiety disorder, anxiety disorders, seasonal affective disorder, and dysthymia, or moderate persistent depressive, as well as other conditions. The antidepressant medications available include the antagonists of SSRIs or selective serotonin reuptake, MAOIs or monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, tetracyclic antidepressants and others.

The antidepressants market covered in this report is segmented by product into selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI); by drug class into monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants; by depressive disorder into major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder.

The global antidepressants market is expected to decline from $26.25 billion in 2020 to $15.87 billion in 2021 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of -39.5%. The change in growth trend is mainly due to the companies stabilizing their output after catering to the demand that grew exponentially during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. The market is expected to reach $21.28 billion in 2025 at a CAGR of 7.6%.

The antidepressants market has also surged during the COVID-19 outbreak. The increasing number of cases and fatalities is affecting the mental health by elevating anxiety worldwide. People who are already living with mental health problems are experiencing increased stress levels over the COVID-19 outbreak. This has triggered the demand for antidepressant drugs.

Globally, rising cases of mental health disorders are the key factor in the growth of the antidepressant drug industry, as many customers rely on these medications to counter depression, anxiety disorder and other mental diseases. Antidepressant medications are used in conditions such as depression, OCD, childhood enuresis, major depressive disorder, severe anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and social anxiety disorder. Globally, the percentage of people with depression varies from 2% to 6% and the elderly are at greater risk of depression compared to other age groups. According to WHO, in 2020, about 264 million people of all ages worldwide suffered from depression. Therefore, rising cases of mental health disorders is expected to drive the growth of the antidepressant market.

The side-effects of antidepressant drugs is a key factor hampering the growth of the antidepressant market. For instance, the antidepressants Lexapro (escitalopram) and Celexa (citalopram), both are used to treat depression and Lexapro also helps for treating anxiety. Lexapro and Celexa can cause side effects common to others which include nausea, sleeplessness, sweating, dry mouth and drowsiness. Celexa and Lexapro are both at risk for even more serious side effects including excessive bleeding, seizures and vision issues. Therefore, the side-effects of antidepressant drugs is expected to limit the growth of the antidepressant market.

The treatment for resistant depression is a key trend in the antidepressant market. Ketamine is the new treatment that is used for anesthesia during surgery, stimulates the development of glutamate, and prompts the brain to form new neural connections. It makes the brain more adaptable and capable of developing new pathways and helps people to create more optimistic thoughts and behaviors. In 2019, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a new ketamine depression drug esketamine which is one half of the ketamine compound. The drug must be administered as a nasal spray and patients must be taking another antidepressant at the same time. Also, the drugs can be prescribed to only those patients who have (unsuccessfully) tried two antidepressants before.

In May 2018, Allergan, an Ireland based company, focused on developing, manufacturing and commercializing branded pharmaceutical, device, biologic, surgical and regenerative medicine products for patients around the world acquired Aptinyx for an unclosed amount. Through this acquisition Allergan gained important insights into NMDA receptor modulation as a potential therapeutic approach for depression. Aptinyx, a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery and development of transformative therapies for challenging neurologic disorders.

Major players in the antidepressants market are Allergan PLC, AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline PLC, H. Lundbeck AS, Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer Inc., Merck & Co. Inc., Sanofi, and Sun Pharmaceuticals Pvt Ltd.

The regions covered in the antidepressants market report are Asia-Pacific, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, South America, Middle East and Africa.

The countries covered in the antidepressants market report are Australia, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Russia, South Korea, UK, USA.

The global antidepressants market is segmented -

1) By Product: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI), Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI), Tricyclic Antidepressant (TCA), Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI)

2) By Drug Class: Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors, Serotonin Antagonist And Reuptake Inhibitors, Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, Tricyclic Antidepressants

3) By Depressive Disorder: Major Depressive Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder

    1. Executive Summary

    2. Antidepressants Market Characteristics

    3. Antidepressants Market Trends And Strategies

    4. Impact Of COVID-19 On Antidepressants

    5. Antidepressants Market Size And Growth

    5.1. Global Antidepressants Historic Market, 2015-2020, $ Billion

    5.1.1. Drivers Of The Market

    5.1.2. Restraints On The Market

    5.2. Global Antidepressants Forecast Market, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    5.2.1. Drivers Of The Market

    5.2.2. Restraints On the Market

    6. Antidepressants Market Segmentation

    6.1. Global Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI)

    Serotonin-norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI)

    Tricyclic Antidepressant (TCA)

    Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI)

    6.2. Global Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Drug Class, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

    Serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors

    Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    Tricyclic antidepressants 3

    6.3. Global Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Depressive Disorder, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    Major Depressive Disorder

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Panic Disorder

    7. Antidepressants Market Regional And Country Analysis

    7.1. Global Antidepressants Market, Split By Region, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    7.2. Global Antidepressants Market, Split By Country, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    8. Asia-Pacific Antidepressants Market

    8.1. Asia-Pacific Antidepressants Market Overview

    Region Information, Impact Of COVID-19, Market Information, Background Information, Government Initiatives, Regulations, Regulatory Bodies, Major Associations, Taxes Levied, Corporate Tax Structure, Investments, Major Companies

    8.2. Asia-Pacific Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    9. China Antidepressants Market

    9.1. China Antidepressants Market Overview

    9.2. China Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F,$ Billion

    10. India Antidepressants Market

    10.1. India Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    11. Japan Antidepressants Market

    11.1. Japan Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    12. Australia Antidepressants Market

    12.1. Australia Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    13. Indonesia Antidepressants Market

    13.1. Indonesia Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    14. South Korea Antidepressants Market

    14.1. South Korea Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    15. Western Europe Antidepressants Market

    15.1. Western Europe Antidepressants Market Overview

    15.2. Western Europe Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    16. UK Antidepressants Market

    16.1. UK Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    17. Germany Antidepressants Market

    17.1. Germany Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    18. France Antidepressants Market

    18.3. France Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    19. Eastern Europe Antidepressants Market

    19.1. Eastern Europe Antidepressants Market Overview

    19.2. Eastern Europe Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    20. Russia Antidepressants Market

    20.1. Russia Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    21. North America Antidepressants Market

    21.1. North America Antidepressants Market Overview

    21.2. North America Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    22. USA Antidepressants Market

    22.1. USA Antidepressants Market Overview

    22.2. USA Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    23. South America Antidepressants Market

    23.1. South America Antidepressants Market Overview

    23.2. South America Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    24. Brazil Antidepressants Market

    24.1. Brazil Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    25. Middle East Antidepressants Market

    25.1. Middle East Antidepressants Market Overview

    25.2. Middle East Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    26. Africa Antidepressants Market

    26.1. Africa Antidepressants Market Overview

    26.2. Africa Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion

    27. Antidepressants Market Competitive Landscape And Company Profiles

    27.1. Antidepressants Market Competitive Landscape

    27.2. Antidepressants Market Company Profiles

    27.2.1. Allergan PLC

    27.2.1.1. Overview

    27.2.1.2. Products and Services

    27.2.1.3. Strategy

    27.2.1.4. Financial Performance

    27.2.2. AstraZeneca

    27.2.2.1. Overview

    27.2.2.2. Products and Services

    27.2.2.3. Strategy

    27.2.2.4. Financial Performance

    27.2.3. Eli Lilly and Company

    27.2.3.1. Overview

    27.2.3.2. Products and Services

    27.2.3.3. Strategy

    27.2.3.4. Financial Performance

    27.2.4. GlaxoSmithKline PLC

    27.2.4.1. Overview

    27.2.4.2. Products and Services

    27.2.4.3. Strategy

    27.2.4.4. Financial Performance

    27.2.5. H. Lundbeck AS

    27.2.5.1. Overview

    27.2.5.2. Products and Services

    27.2.5.3. Strategy

    27.2.5.4. Financial Performance

    28. Antidepressants Pipeline Analysis

    29. Key Mergers And Acquisitions In The Antidepressants Market

    30. Antidepressants Market Future Outlook and Potential Analysis

    31. Appendix

    31.1. Abbreviations

    31.2. Currencies

    31.3. Research Inquiries

    31.4. The Business Research Company

    31.5. Copyright And Disclaimer

List Of Tables

    Table 1: Global Historic Market Growth, 2015-2020, $ Billion
  • Table 2: Global Forecast Market Growth, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 3: Global Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 4: Global Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Drug Class, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 5: Global Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Depressive Disorder, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 6: Global Antidepressants Market, Split By Region, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 7: Global Antidepressants Market, Split By Country, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 8: Asia-Pacific, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 9: China, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 10: India, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 11: Japan, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 12: Australia, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 13: Indonesia, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 14: South Korea, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 15: Western Europe, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 16: UK, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 17: Germany, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 18: France, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 19: Eastern Europe, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 20: Russia, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 21: North America, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 22: USA, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 23: South America, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 24: Brazil, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 25: Middle East, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 26: Africa, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Table 27: Allergan PLC Financial Performance
  • Table 28: AstraZeneca Financial Performance
  • Table 29: Eli Lilly and Company Financial Performance
  • Table 30: GlaxoSmithKline PLC Financial Performance
  • Table 31: H. Lundbeck AS Financial Performance

List Of Figures

    Figure 1: Global Historic Market Growth, 2015-2020, $ Billion
  • Figure 2: Global Forecast Market Growth, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 3: Global Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 4: Global Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Drug Class, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 5: Global Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Depressive Disorder, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 6: Global Antidepressants Market, Split By Region, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 7: Global Antidepressants Market, Split By Country, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 8: Asia-Pacific, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 9: China, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 10: India, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 11: Japan, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 12: Australia, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 13: Indonesia, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 14: South Korea, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 15: Western Europe, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 16: UK, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 17: Germany, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 18: France, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 19: Eastern Europe, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 20: Russia, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 21: North America, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 22: USA, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 23: South America, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 24: Brazil, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 25: Middle East, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 26: Africa, Antidepressants Market, Segmentation By Product, Historic and Forecast, 2015-2020, 2020-2025F, 2030F, $ Billion
  • Figure 27: Allergan PLC Financial Performance
  • Figure 28: AstraZeneca Financial Performance
  • Figure 29: Eli Lilly and Company Financial Performance
  • Figure 30: GlaxoSmithKline PLC Financial Performance
  • Figure 31: H. Lundbeck AS Financial Performance
Global Cancer Monoclonal Antibodies Market Report 2021 – Opportunities And Strategies, Market Forecast And Trends
Global Clinical Nutrition Market Report 2021 – Opportunities And Strategies, Market Forecast And Trends
Global Cervical Cancer Drugs Market Report 2021 – Opportunities And Strategies, Market Forecast And Trends
Global Central Nervous System Drugs Market Report 2021 – Opportunities And Strategies, Market Forecast And Trends
Global Checkpoint Inhibitors Market Report 2021 – Opportunities And Strategies, Market Forecast And Trends
Global Cell Therapy Market Report 2021 – Opportunities And Strategies, Market Forecast And Trends
Global Cell Culture Market Report 2021 – Opportunities And Strategies, Market Forecast And Trends
Global Cell And Gene Therapy Market Report 2021 – Opportunities And Strategies, Market Forecast And Trends
Anti-Viral Drug Therapy Market - By Drug Class (DNA (Nucleotide) Polymerase Inhibitors, Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, Protease Inhibitors, Neuraminidase Inhibitors, Others), By Application (HIV, Hepatitis, Herpes, Influenza, Others), Anti-Viral Drug Therapy Market Size, Opportunities And Strategies - Global Anti-Viral Drug Therapy Market Forecast To 2030
View Report
Arthritis Monoclonal Antibodies Global Market Report 2021: COVID-19 Growth And Change To 2030
View Report
Anti-Thyroid Drugs Global Market Report 2021: COVID-19 Impact and Recovery To 2030
View Report
Anti-Asthmatics And Copd Drugs Market - By Type Of Therapy (Preventive, Curative), By Drug Class (Bronchodilators, Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Monoclonal Antibodies, Combination Drugs), By Distribution Channel (General Pharmacies, Hospital Pharmacies, Online Retailers), By End-Users (Asthma Patients, Copd Patients), And By Region, Opportunities And Strategies – Global Forecast To 2030
View Report
Antidiarrhoeals Global Market Report 2021: COVID 19 Impact and Recovery to 2030
View Report
Antiglaucoma Drugs Market - By Product Type (Alpha Agonist, Beta Blockers, Prostaglandin Analogs, Combined Medication, Others), By Disease Condition Type (Open-Angle Glaucoma, Angle-Closure Glaucoma, Normal-Tension Glaucoma, Congenital Glaucoma, Other Types Of Glaucoma), By Prescription Type (OTC Drugs, Prescription Drugs), And By Region, Opportunities And Strategies – Global Antiglaucoma Drugs Market Forecast To 2030
View Report
Anti-Infective Drugs Global Market Report 2021: COVID-19 Implications And Growth to 2030
View Report
Pharmaceuticals Market - By Type (Pharmaceutical Drugs, Biologics), By Type Of Pharmaceutical Drugs (Cardiovascular Drugs, Dermatology Drugs, Gastrointestinal Drugs, Genito-Urinary Drugs, Hematology Drugs, Anti-Infective Drugs, Metabolic Disorder Drugs, Musculoskeletal Disorder Drugs, Central Nervous System Drugs, Oncology Drugs, Ophthalmology Drugs, Respiratory Diseases Drugs), By Type Of Biologics Drugs (Monoclonal Antibodies (MAbS), Therapeutic Proteins, Vaccines), And By Region, Opportunities And Strategies – Global Forecast To 2030
View Report

Call Us

+1 3156230293

(Americas)

+44 2071930708

(Europe)

+91 8897263534

(Asia & Others)