Organ-On-Chips Market Definition
Organs-on-chips (OOCs) are small plastic devices with biocompatible microfluidic chambers, which contain multiple live human cells in a 3D culture that simulate key physiological functions of body organs. These cells are placed in an environment which artificially replicates aspects of human body such as morphology, movement, flow, electrical stimuli and liquid gradients.
Organ-On-Chips Market Size
The global organ-on-chips market reached a value of nearly $34 million in 2017, having grown at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of more than 55% since 2013.
The small size of the market is mainly because OOCs have not yet been fully commercialized. They are still in the research and development phase and are being used by a limited number of end-users.
Going forward, it is expected to rise at this high CAGR due to an increase in the number of collaborative sales agreements between the pharmaceutical companies and university spin-offs and the entry of new advanced models of OOCs into the market. The anticipated launch of advanced organ-specific models and human-on-chip models is expected to further increase the growth rate of this market in future.
Grants by government and non-government entities have been the key drivers for the global OOC industry to date. The ability of OOC models to cut drug development costs drastically will be a key market driver in the future.
Organ-On-Chips Market Drivers
The Key drivers of the organ-on-chips market include:
Improved Drug Screening With Organs-On-Chips Will Drive Demand - 2D cell cultures, 3D cell cultures and OOCs are in-vitro techniques as the techniques are carried out in laboratories, whereas experiment on animals is an in-vivo technique. 2D culture systems are considered to have the lowest drug predictability as they fail to provide a suitable platform for the cells to obtain the required results. 3D cell cultures such as 3D organoids and bioreactors have better drug predictability than 2D. Animal models have the advantage of providing an in-vivo environment to the drug, but they have limitations as some drugs which may exhibit the best results in animal models may fail to demonstrate the same on humans.
The standard protocol for new drug testing involves 2D cell culture based tests, followed by animal model tests and clinical trials. Most drugs fail during clinical trials and only about 10% compounds progress after trails. This failure can be attributed to both the in-vivo 2D cell culture tests and the in-vitro animal models. It therefore becomes imperative to establish cell based systems that can more realistically mimic the in-vivo cell behaviors and provide more predictable results. Organ-on-chip is a newer human cell-based approach which enables scientists to predict more accurately how effective a therapeutic candidate would be in clinical studies. The improved predictability provided by organ-on-chip is considered a key market driver.
Organ-On-Chips Market Restraints
The key restraints on the organ-on-chips market include:
Regulatory Hurdles For Drug Approvals - Stringent drug regulatory processes are a major restraint for the widespread use of OOCs by pharmaceutical companies. Drug regulatory authorities scrutinize the preclinical and clinical investigational data of a drug molecule to validate and approve it. The data generated by testing the drug in animal models and humans are required for the drug approval process.
At present the regulatory authorities do not consider the data obtained by testing the drugs on OOCs sufficient proof for approval. Data predicting the efficacy of a drug molecule obtained by the chips can be submitted but only along with the trial data from animal and human subjects for the approval process. These drug regulations limit the use of OCCs by end-users.
Organ-On-Chips Market Trends
Major trends influencing the organ-on-chips market include:
Developments In The Testing Of Human Organs-On-Chips - Human organs-on-chips (OOCs) are miniaturized versions of lungs, livers, kidneys, heart, brain, intestines and other vital human organs embedded in a chip. With advances in OOC technology, drug regulatory bodies have started testing OOCs for their reliability and their use as an alternative to animal testing. For instance, in April 2017, the US FDA announced an agreement with Emulate Inc., a US-based biotechnology company, to evaluate the company’s human organ-on-chip technology in laboratories. The OOC technology offers a less time-consuming and cost-effective way to test drugs, foods, cosmetics and dietary supplements for efficacy and toxicity. Emulate Inc. was founded by researchers at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University, and is the first commercial organ-on-chip venture. Companies such as Johnson & Johnson and Merck have also partnered with Emulate to test and develop applications for its human OOC technology.
Organ-On-Chip Technology In Space - Organ-on-chip technology is evolving and is finding its way into space research. For example, five grants have been awarded by the US Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS) and the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) to research focused on human physiology and disease onboard the International Space Station (ISS) U.S. National Laboratory. Data from this research is expected to help scientists develop and advance novel technologies to improve human health. NCATS will provide initial funding of about $6 million to use tissue chip technology for this research. Again, the University of Washington School of Pharmacy and UW Medicine researchers, in collaboration with Novartis, a Seattle-based OOC company, are developing a “kidney-on-a-chip” model to be used in space for drug, toxin and environmental exposures, and to understand how microgravity and other factors affect kidney health. This project is funded by NCATS with $3 million grant, and CASIS will contribute the space flight, time in station, and space station crew costs, for an in-kind total of $8 million.
Recommendations In The Organ-On-Chips Market
Recommendations – To take advantage of the opportunities, The Business Research Company recommends the organ-on-chips companies to focus on integrated approach, OOCs for human disease models, personalized drug tests and regulatory status of tests using OOCs.
Organ-On-Chips Market Segmentation
The Organ-On-Chips market is segmented by organ type, by end user industry and by geography.
By Organ Type -
The organ-on-chips market is segmented by service type into
Lung-on-chip constituted 20% of the global OOC market in 2017. More than 50% of the global OOC market is currently contributed by organ models for lung, kidney, intestine, heart and liver.
- a) Lung-on-chip
- b) Heart-on-chip
- c) Liver-on-chip
- d) Intestine-on-chip
- e) Kidney-on-chip
- f) Skin-on-chip
- g) Blood-Brain-Barrier-On-Chip
- h) Other Organ Models
By End Users -
The organ-on-chips market is segmented by end users into
By Geography - The organ-on-chips market is segmented into
- a) Pharmaceuticals
- b) Research Organizations
- c) Consumer Goods and Cosmetics
- d) Food and Beverages
- e) Others
North America is the largest market for organ-on-chips, accounting for almost 60% of the global market. It was followed by Europe, Asia and then the other regions. Going forward, Europe and Asia will be the fastest growing regions in this market.
- o North America
- o Europe
- o Asia
- o Rest Of World (ROW)
Organ-On-Chips Competitive Landscape
Major Competitors are:
- • CN Bio Innovations
- • Emulate
- • TissUse GmbH
- • Mimetas
- • HµREL Corporation
- • Nortis
- • InSphero AG
- • Tara Biosystems
- • AxoSim Technologies
- • Organovo Inc.
- • Ascendance Biotechnology
- • HemoShear